This chapter provides information about online learning from a didactical perspective. It elaborates on the four main dimensions of remote teaching based on the book Learning Online: What Research Tells Us about Whether, When and How (New York: Routledge, 2014) by Barbara Means, Marianne Bakia, and Robert Murphy: The context, implementation, various outcomes, and design of the learning experience. During the design process, you can use this chapter as an additional reference, to explore the benefits and trade-off of the choices you would like to make.


Hybrid learning is a synchronous approach. One group of students participates in person (on campus) while at the same time the other group of students participates (individually) online.

Blended learning has synchronous and asynchronous aspects. The more passive activities and/or the ones that can be executed at one’s own pace take place in an individual online setting (asynchronous). The teacher and students all come together at the same time, in class or online, to spent time on more interactive activities, such as discussions, simulations, and feedback (synchronous).

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